教育展参加展览高校简介,女孩子在校学习战表更好

教育展参加展览高校简介,女孩子在校学习战表更好

网赌正规网站网址 1图形来源:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高竹秋高等高校阶段,男孩正被女孩当先,且距离正日益拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

网赌正规网站网址,1所高等克罗地亚共和国(Republic of Croatia)语寄宿高校的校长Anthony托Seldon称“这统统在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy参谋长伊凡Yip称“他们普遍认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前者收取金钱三.八万韩元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另1个为其大部分学员提供午餐补贴,1/4的学习者有卓越教学需求。不过,它们都同一致力于化解相同难题:青少年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是二个十几年前不能够想像的标题。直到1玖世纪70年份在此之前,男孩比女孩费用更长日子并取得更高教育,且更有望从大学结束学业。今后,无论是富裕世界依旧进一步多的穷困国家,平衡向另壹方倾斜。曾经担忧女孩缺少正确信心的策略制定者们,今后越来越多日子在强行男孩方今晃动《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了1项有关“男孩风险”的研讨。澳国实行了1项”男孩,男士,书和比特”的档次。仅仅几代时间内,前一本性别差异消失,而后一种性别差别又并发。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为集散地的富贵世界智库OECD于13月五号公布了壹份简报中显得了那种反转。男子在数学领域的主导地位大致会到处。在平均年龄一四周岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现至极。不过,在翻阅领域,女孩平素维系超过地位,且距离变得更大。在那项研讨所涉及的61个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现杰出。女孩平均比男孩超前三个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步学习须要依靠读写能力,OECD将它当作评估中最重大的技艺。果真如此,在完结数学、阅读和自然科学的基础力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出四分之二的挫败或者。在那个部落的小伙子,因无所依靠和无所出众,而更有极大可能从全校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明白为啥男人和女子在课堂内显示出这样差异,先从课堂之外活动动手。1般十二周岁女孩周周费用5.五钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多3个钟头,他们消费越多时光玩电子游艺和上网。四分之三的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而仅有十分之五多点的男士这么做。随着显示器逐步把眼光从书册挪开,世界上全数地方的阅读率正日益下滑,而汉子降低速度更快。OECD发现,在那么些和一般女孩子工作壹般的哥们中,在翻阅方面包车型客车性别差距裁减了百分之二十5左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

壹教书,男士就渴望快点甘休。在告诉中,多于女人二倍的男士觉得上课是浪费时间,而且更平日迟到。仿佛过去教授努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD近年来建议父母和政策制定者带领男士远离将忽视学术成就作为男生气概彰显的这种想法。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着各个各类的压力。但不幸的是,他们准备在坏行为上不辜负被人期望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有成都百货上千做事可供未受教育男性采用时,男孩鄙视高校还出示没那么非理性。但是那一个日子已经不复存在。恐怕有个别傲然有助于男生学习数学,自信促使哥们超过(但有时则变为一种幻觉:1二%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟练”虚拟缩放“这一概念,而那一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她们缺少自律让老师很高烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

唯恐因为他们那样令人为难忍受,青少年男孩平日给予较低分数。OECD发现,男孩在匿名测试中的表现好于先生评估。在读书方面包车型大巴性别差距裁减了1/叁;而在数学方面,已抢先的汉子将差异拉大。另一研究显得,因老师缺少公平,尽管能力十一分。男人也比女子更有望被要求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

致使那种反差对待?一种恐怕的解释是先生给予这贰个礼貌、热心和远离打架的学生更高分数,而这个特点在女孩中进一步广阔。在有的国家,甚至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种或许是,女性,构成了八成的小教的和周围7/10的初级中学年老年师,更偏爱她们自身的性别,就如男性上级偏爱男性下属壹般。在部分地点在法网中也有性别主义:新加坡照旧允许鞭刑男性,而女性则免于该行政法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有点国家为男孩表现卓绝提供了环境。在拉美,阅读方面包车型地铁性别差距相对较小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的男子落后于女孩子小于其他地点。不过,令人思疑的是,那总伴随着男性在数学方面当先于女性的距离加大。反过来也创立。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现卓绝的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人恼火的稳步加宽的读书方面性别差距。自200三年OECD最终叁回就此展开的广阔考察呈现,少数国度男人在阅读方面蒙受了女人,而在另1对国家女性成功裁减了数学方面包车型地铁歧异。但从未国家成功落成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中档教育自此,女性的当先地位继续保障。直至新近数10年,男性差不离占据高校的主流人群,尤其是毋庸置疑与工程领域的高阶课程。不过,随着高教在世界范围的蓬勃发展,女性入学拉长率大约两倍于男性。在OECD报告展现,女性注册率由1玖八四年的肆六%提升至5二%,到20二伍年也许上涨至45%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

哪怕在个别女性是少数人全的OECD国家,女性数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同时,1些回顾U.S.A.、英帝国和南美洲国度,女性比男性人口多于百分之五十。在无数美利坚同盟国才女公立高校中,性别比例越来越平衡。许多少人觉得这么些大学的不透明招生专业越来越偏爱男性。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女性化进程如此缓慢,以至于在非常长日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan
文斯nt-Lancrin称,当二〇〇玖年壹份有关告知摘登时,人们“不信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进入大学的女性,相对于她们的男性同僚,更有望毕业,且获得更好地培养。不过,男性和女性所选科指标倾向差异。越多地女性选取教育、健康、艺术和人教育学科,而男性更加多选用总括机、工程和精密科学等学科。在数学方面,女性正一如既往,而在科学、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于抢先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相持于其它蓄意的策略,社会变革更利于于鼓励女性进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的下滑,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女性寻找工作提供了便利。随着越来越多女性进入工作条件,歧视变得没那么分明。1旦女性被期望全部职业发展时,女孩就意识到读书的重点。回升的离婚率使得女性发现到本身供养的根本。最近,无论是学业上依然职场上,世界外省的女孩比男孩表现出更娄底想。无缘无故,在1玖社会风气上半叶,大致大半美利坚联邦合众国办事禁止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

这正是说,女性是或不是慢慢成为核心性别?出版于二零一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,至少在美利坚联邦合众国,女性不但教育上打头,还在事情上和社会上超越。许多国度的方针制定者担忧数量渐渐攀升的下层阶级的指导程度较低的男性的前景前景。女性也应当担忧这一点。在过去,女性温凡与同阶层或抢先自个儿阶层的男性结婚。假如那种男性较少,一大半女性只可以寻找下阶层男性或选拔不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD彰显,虽不是全体,然而在不少国家,高教投入对女性的报恩当先男性。一家采访收入数据的合作社America
PayScale发现,女性对于大学学历的投资回报率相对于男性而言,较低或(在最为景况下)相似。尽管女性完整表现更为,但她俩薪给水平仅为男性的四分之三。主因在于相对于工程或电脑科学等,女性选取教育、人文和社科那类薪金较低科目。但是,学术钻探呈现相对于男性,女性更少的青睐工资,显示了谋求高回报并非女性追求高等教育的重中之重原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的商业贸易和专业领域,女性依旧较少。女性在全校所显示优势被反败为胜。在高校,故事集及考试评价是匿名的,性别因素被防止,而吝惜女性不受性别歧视的震慑。可是,来自于大不列颠及英格兰联合王国克兰Field理大学的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在办事场馆守旧方式再一次印证自身。同等数量的男性和女性出席哲大学和法律大学,然则,十-一5年过后,许多女性选拔了进一步干燥的营生路线或开支越多时间陪孩子。与此同时,随着此前习得的经验的要紧逐步消失而特性、雄心和阅历成为更为首要的影响因素,男性在工作层级上逐级攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不长壹段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学大概职场,女性所占比重不足,由此需求时日去建立通往高层职位的渠道。可是40年以来,1些国家毕业生人数中女性别变化成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据印度孟买理教院历史学教师Claudia戈尔德in称,女性崛起的末尾环节–平等的薪俸和特等职业大概–若不开始展览急剧结构调整是不会来到。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE中华V的风尚文献中,戈尔德in女士发现高素质劳引力中,在工作生活的十到一伍年间,男性时辰薪水与女性差别巨大,首要原因在于高收益工作的小幅度奖金取决于长日子工作和随时应对电话为前提。全体而言,男性绝对于女性更善于如此行事。在那种工作方法广泛的小圈子,如商业和法规,性别薪水差距还是极大。并且,甚至长期离开工作条件也恐怕引致严重惩罚,意味着阿娘须求付出较大代价。而当工作薪水首要依靠工作时长时,就像是配药房,性别薪金差距较小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有些工作是难以完结灵活性的,就像是那多少个高管s、法院开庭审判律师、口腔科医师、银行家和一些响当当政客们。而除此以外其余干活,薪水并非在于随时待命。同时,受过非凡教育且想要脱离工作的男性也会从中收益。可是,新的性别差距位于报酬范围的另1端。受苦的不要女性,而是无技能的男性。

二零零六年中华国际教育展将于三月115日在首都拉开帷幕,随后巡回莱比锡、香港(Hong Kong)、塞尔维亚Bell格莱德和
华盛顿四个城市,以下为大不列颠及英格兰联合王国此番参加展览学院和学校International College Sherborne
School简介:

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

International College, Sherborne School

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

TheInternational College is the only purpose-built school of its kind
inthe UK; established in 1977, its aim is to give school children
fromnon-British, non-English speaking backgrounds the very best start
totheir education in the UK. It provides:

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

a) Intensive English language training

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

b) Intensive academic development

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

c) A careful introduction to the skills essential for study at boarding
schools in England

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

It is a full boarding school, for girls and boys aged between 11 and 17.

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

Most students study for one year before moving into top traditional
schools。

  Glossary 词汇表

We are non-selective, but achieved 90% higher level passes in
thenational GCSE examinations in 2008. All our teachers are trained,
andmost qualified, in teaching English as a foreign language, as well
asbeing qualified in their own subjects, e.g. Mathematics, Sciences,
etc.Enrolment takes place in September, January and April。

  gender equality男女一样

The College also has an eight week summer course in July and August each
year。

  factor因素

参展城市
北京 (10月17-18日) 武汉 (10月21日) 上海 (10月24-25日) 成都 (10月28日) 广州 (10月30-11月1日)
E401

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend转败为胜1种倾向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

实习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

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